IRS Methods of Indirectly Determining Taxable Income
There are various audit and investigative techniques available to corroborate or refute a taxpayer’s claim about their business operations or nature of doing business. IRS audit or investigative techniques for a cash intensive business might include an examiner determining that a large understatement of income could exist based on return information and other sources of information. The use of indirect methods of proving income, also referred to as the IRS Financial Status Audit Techniques (FSAT), is not prohibited by Code Section 7602(e).
INDIRECT METHODS OF DETERMINING TAXABLE INCOME. Indirect methods include a fully developed Cash T, percentage mark-up, net worth analysis, source and application of funds or bank deposit and cash expenditures analysis. However, examiners must first establish a reasonable indication that there is a likelihood of underreported or unreported income. Examiners must then request an explanation of the discrepancy from the taxpayer. If the taxpayer cannot explain, refuses to explain, or cannot fully explain the discrepancy, a FSAT may be necessary. Common FSATs include:
• The Source and Application of Funds Method is an analysis of a taxpayer’s cash flows and comparison of all known expenditures with all known receipts for the period. This method is based on the theory that any excess expense items (applications) over income items (sources) represent an understatement of taxable income. Net increases and decreases in assets and liabilities are taken into account along with nondeductible expenditures and nontaxable receipts. The excess of expenditures over the sum of reported and nontaxable income is the proposed adjustment to income.
The Source and Application of Funds Method is typically used when the review of a taxpayer’s return indicates that the taxpayer’s deductions and other expenditures appear out of proportion to the income reported, the taxpayer’s cash does not all flow from a bank account which can be analyzed to determine its source and subsequent disposition, or the taxpayer makes it a common business practice to use cash receipts to pay business expenses.
Sources of funds are the various ways the taxpayer acquires money during the year. Decreases in assets and increases in liabilities generate funds. Funds also come from taxable and nontaxable sources of income. Unreported sources of income even though known, are not listed in this computation since the purpose is to determine the amount of any unreported income. Specific items of income are denoted separately. Specific sources of funds include the decrease in cash-on-hand, in bank account balances (including personal and business checking and savings accounts), and decreases in accounts receivable; increases in accounts payable; increases in loan principals and credit card balances; taxable and nontaxable income, and deductions which do not require funds such as depreciation, carryovers and carrybacks, and adjusted basis of assets sold.
Application of funds are ways the taxpayer used (or expended) money during the year. Examples of applications of funds include increases in cash-on-hand, increase in bank account balances (including personal and business checking and savings accounts), business equipment purchased, real estate purchased, and personal assets acquired; purchases and business expenses; decreases in loan principals and credit card balances, and personal living expenses. Determining the beginning amount of cash-on-hand and accumulated fund for the year is important. See IRS IRM 184.108.40.206.8.3 for possible defenses the taxpayer might raise regarding the availability of nontaxable funds.
• The Bank Account Analysis compares total deposits with the reported gross income. for all accounts, whether designated as personal or business. The examiner will review the taxpayer’s business and personal bank accounts (including investment accounts); i.e., statements, deposit slips, and canceled checks, etc. looking for unusual deposits (size or source), the frequency of deposits, deposits of cash, specific deposits that do not follow the taxpayer’s normal routine or pattern, nontaxable deposits such as loans and transfers, commingling of personal and business activities, and cash-backs when a deposit occurs.
The examiner will attempt to total the deposits and reconcile deposits of nontaxable funds and transfers between accounts focusing on transfers in, out, and between accounts as previously unknown accounts may be identified. Checks deposited by the taxpayer but later returned by the bank (e.g., the maker of the check did not have sufficient funds in the account to pay the check) are categorized as nontaxable transactions. Nontaxable funds, transfers-in, and returned deposits need to be subtracted from total deposits to get “taxable deposits.” The examiner will determine disbursements by adding the opening bank balance to the total deposits and then subtracting out the ending balance.
To the extent possible, cancelled checks will be reviewed to determine whether nondeductible expenditures (personal expenses, investments, payments on asset purchases, etc.) are included with business expenses and if so, the amount. If cancelled checks are unavailable, transactions will be traced from the bank statement to the check register and the original document. Significant commingling of accounts may warrant a more in-depth analysis by the examiner. When nondeductible expenditures are deducted from the total disbursements the remainder should approximate the deductible business expenses on the tax return (other than non-cash expenses such as accruals and depreciation).
If the analysis results in the identification of excess deposits over the reported gross income, the excess represents potential unreported income. If specific transactions or deposits can be identified as the source of the understatement, the examiner may assert a specific item adjustment to income supported by the direct evidence of excess deposits. If the specific transactions or deposits creating the understatement are not identified, an adjustment to taxable income may be made based on the circumstantial evidence. If the business expenditures paid by check are less than the deducted business expenses on the return, then the taxpayer may be overstating expenses, paying expenses by cash (unreported income), or paying expenses from an undisclosed source of funds. If the analysis indicates significant commingling of funds, then the internal controls are weak and the books and records may be unreliable.
• The Bank Deposits and Cash Expenditures Method is distinguished from the Bank Account Analysis by the depth and analysis of all the individual bank account transactions, and the accounting for cash expenditures, and a determination of actual personal living expenses. The Bank Deposits and Cash Expenditures Method computes income by showing what happened to a taxpayer’s funds based on the theory that if a taxpayer receives money it can either be deposited or it can be spent . This method is based on the assumptions that proof of deposits into bank accounts, after certain adjustments have been made for nontaxable receipts, constitutes evidence of taxable receipts; expenditures as disclosed on the return, were actually made and could only have been paid for by credit card, check, or cash. If outlays were paid by cash, then the source of that cash must be from a taxable source unless otherwise accounted for and it is the burden of the taxpayer to demonstrate a nontaxable source for this cash.
The examiner will consider whether there are unusual or extraneous deposits which appear unlikely to have resulted from reported sources of income? The examiner may limit the examination to large deposits or deposits over a certain amount. However, the identification of smaller regular deposits may be indicative of dividend income, interest, rent, or other income, leading to a source of investment income. An item of deposit may be unusual due to the kind of deposit, check or cash, in its relationship to the taxpayer’s business or source of income. An explanation may be required if a large cash deposit is made by a taxpayer whose deposits normally consist of checks. Also, a bank statement noting only one or two large even dollar deposits, in lieu of the normal odd dollar and cents deposits, would be unusual and require an explanation.
Many taxpayers, due to the nature of their business or the convenience of the depository used, will follow a set pattern in making deposits. Deviation from this pattern may be reason for more in depth questioning. Bank statements or deposit slips which indicate repeat deposits of the same amount on a monthly basis, quarterly or semi-annual basis may indicate rental, dividend, interest or other income accruing to the taxpayer.
The examination of deposit slips may indicate items of deposit which appear questionable due to the location of the bank on which the deposited check was drawn. It is common practice when preparing a deposit slip to list either the name of the bank, city of the bank or identification number of the bank upon which the deposited check was drawn. If an identification number is used, the name and location of the bank can be determined by reference to the banker’s guide. In all cases, if the location of the bank on which the check for deposit was drawn bears little relation to the taxpayer’s business location or source of income, it may indicate the need for further investigation.
The examiner should identify all loan proceeds, collection of loans, or extraneous items reflected in deposits. If loan proceeds are identified, the examiner may request the loan application documents to verify the source and amount of the nontaxable funds and attempt to determine whether such information is consistent with other information; i.e., cash flows, assets, anticipated gross receipts, etc.
If repayments of loans are identified, the examiner will request the debt instruments to establish that a loan was made, the terms of the debt, and the repayment schedule. Before an examiner can reach any conclusion about the relationship between deposits and reported receipts, transfers and re-deposits must be eliminated. For example, if a taxpayer draws a check to cash for the purpose of cashing payroll checks and then re-deposits these payroll checks, the examiner would be incorrect if total deposits were compared to receipts reported without adjusting for this amount. The taxpayer has done nothing more than redeposit the same funds in the form of someone else’s checks.
• The Markup Method produces a reconstruction of income based on the use of percentages or ratios considered typical for the business under examination in order to make the actual determination of tax liability. It consists of an analysis of sales and/or cost of sales and the application of an appropriate percentage of markup to arrive at the taxpayer’s gross receipts. By reference to similar businesses, percentage computations determine sales, cost of sales, gross profit, or even net profit. By using some known base and the typical applicable percentage, individual items of income or expenses may be determined. These percentages can be obtained from analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics data or industry publications. If known, use of the taxpayer’s actual markup is required.
The Markup Method is similar to how state sales tax agencies conduct audits. The cost of goods sold is verified and the resulting gross receipts are determined based on actual markup. The Markup Method is often used when inventories are a principal income producing factor and the taxpayer has nonexistent or unreliable records or the taxpayer’s cost of goods sold or merchandise purchased is from a limited number of sources such that these sources can be ascertained with reasonable certainty, and there is a reasonable degree of consistency as to sales prices.
• The Net Worth Method for determining the actual tax liability is based upon the theory that increases in a taxpayer’s net worth during a taxable year, adjusted for nondeductible expenditures and nontaxable income, must result from taxable income. This method requires a complete reconstruction of the taxpayer’s financial history, since the government must account for all assets, liabilities, nondeductible expenditures, and nontaxable sources of funds during the relevant period.
The theory of the Net Worth Method is based upon the fact that for any given year, a taxpayer’s income is applied or expended on items which are either deductible or nondeductible, including increases to the taxpayer’s net worth through the purchase of assets and/or reduction of liabilities. The taxpayer’s net worth (total assets less total liabilities) is determined at the beginning and at the end of the taxable year. The difference between these two amounts will be the increase or decrease in net worth. The taxable portion of the income can be reconstructed by calculating the increase in net worth during the year, adding back the nondeductible items, and subtracting that portion of the income which is partially or wholly nontaxable.
The purpose of the Net Worth Method is to determine, through a change in net worth, whether the taxpayer is purchasing assets, reducing liabilities, or making expenditures with funds not reported as taxable income. The use of the Net Worth Method of proof requires that the government establish an opening net worth, also known as the base year, with reasonable certainty; negate reasonable explanations by the taxpayer inconsistent with guilt; i.e., reasons for the increased net worth other than the receipt of taxable funds. Failure to address the taxpayer’s explanations might result in serious injustice; establish that the net worth increases are attributable to currently taxable income, and; where there are no books and records, willfulness may be inferred from that fact coupled with proof of an understatement of taxable income. But where the books and records appear correct on their face, an inference of willfulness from net worth increases alone might not be justified. The government must prove every element beyond a reasonable doubt, though not to a mathematical certainty.
BE PREPARED. Circumstances that might support the use of an indirect method include a financial analysis that cannot be easily reconciled – such as if the taxpayer’s known business and personal expenses exceed the reported income per the return and nontaxable sources of funds have not been identified to explain the difference; irregularities in the taxpayer’s books and weak internal controls; gross profit percentages change significantly from one year to another, or are unusually high or low for that market segment or industry; the taxpayer’s bank accounts have unexplained deposits; the taxpayer does not make regular deposits of income, but uses cash instead; a review of the taxpayer’s prior and subsequent year returns show a significant increase in net worth not supported by reported income; there are no books and records (examiners should determine whether books and/or records ever existed, and whether books and records exist for the prior or subsequent years. If books and records have been destroyed, the examiner will attempt to determine who destroyed them, why, and when); no method of accounting has been regularly used by the taxpayer or the method used does not clearly reflect income as required by Code section 446(b).
When considering an indirect method, the IRS examiner will look to the industry or market segment in which the taxpayer operates, whether inventories are a principle income producing activity, whether suppliers can be identified and/or merchandise is purchased from a limited number of suppliers, whether pricing of merchandise and/or service is reasonably consistent, the volume of production and variety of products, availability and completeness of the taxpayer’s books and records, the taxpayer’s banking practices, the taxpayer’s use of cash to pay expenses, expenditures exceed income, stability of assets and liabilities, and stability of net worth over multiple years under audit.
Practitioners often consider performing one or more of the foregoing indirect methods before commencement of an IRS examination for taxpayers operating a “cash intensive” business. Better to know before the audit begins than to be surprised about some unusual or undisclosed financial activity during the examination.
For every IRS examination, the advice is the same . . . prepare, prepare, prepare and learn to expect the unexpected.